Electric heating is any process in which electrical energy is converted to heat.  Common applications include space heating, cooking, water heating and industrial processes.  An electric heater is an electrical appliance that converts electrical energy into heat.  The heating element inside every electric heater is simply an electrical resistor, and works on the principle passing an electric current through a resistor converts electrical energy into heat energy. 

Alternatively, a heat pump uses an electric motor to drive a refrigeration cycle, drawing energy from a source such as the ground or outside air and directing it into the space to be warmed.  Heat pumps can deliver up to two or three units of heating energy for every unit of electricity purchased depending on the outside air temperature and dew point.  Unfortunately Heat pumps efficiency decreases as the outside temperature decreases and eventually freeze up requiring power to defrost them while providing no usable heat. Heat pumps are very cost effective during mild weather and can be used for cooling in summer.

Due to the high power charges, electricity is being used less as a main heating system but is still used for portable heating and supplementary heating and cooling when required.